According to foreign media reports: Since 1900, fossil fuels have emitted 90% of the world’s greenhouse gases (GHG). In addition, about 78% of GHG came from fossil fuel combustion and industrial production between 1970 and 2011.
Despite calls for strict policies to better control emissions and improve air quality. Many sectors of the economy continue to emit large amounts of CO2.
Warming atmospheric temperatures have threatened biodiversity, caused sea levels to rise, and dramatically altered the weather to the point where climate change is now detectable on a daily basis. Environmental scientists and engineers are working to improve the efficiency, reliability and security of energy use. And renewable energy has become a cornerstone of sustainable development.
Current research on lithium-ion batteries and hydrogen fuel cells has attracted increasing attention. The global lithium-ion battery market size is expected to grow by $116.6 billion by 2030. At the same time, the global market for hydrogen fuel cell technology is also expected to reach $131.06 billion in parallel.
Promising decarbonization solutions
Current research is focused on addressing the challenges associated with the use side of lithium-ion batteries and hydrogen fuel cells to decarbonize the automotive industry.
With the growing popularity of electric vehicles, the production of lithium-ion batteries is booming. Meanwhile, hydrogen fuel cells are often used in transportation, construction and grid systems.
Electric vehicles are more sustainable compared to traditional internal combustion engine vehicles. But the process of extracting and manufacturing the cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries – lithium, cobalt, graphite and nickel – these materials produce greenhouse gases. They are designed to deliver higher power in a smaller volume. But this can increase the safety hazard and risk of battery combustion if the battery is subjected to greater crushing or causes rupture.
Fuel cells are a safer, emission-free alternative energy source. Hydrogen is used as the primary reaction fuel to generate electricity through a chemical reaction.
Fuel cells: Improving the efficiency of lithium-ion batteries
These two advanced technologies are not mutually exclusive, as fuel cells have the potential to enhance lithium-ion batteries.
In the case of electric vehicles, for example, hydrogen fuel cells can improve driving distances and fuel refill time issues while reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with lithium-ion batteries.
In addition to generating and storing electricity from hydrogen, fuel cells can improve lithium-ion batteries in the following ways.
Generating net zero electricity to start cars and other power-consuming accessories.
Storing energy for regenerative braking and adding electric traction motors to drive wheels.
Charging backup batteries.
Regardless of the integration of power source and engine, lithium-ion batteries are always a key component of electric vehicles, but they are not perfect. Electric vehicles powered by pure hydrogen fuel cells also face a number of challenges.
Lithium-ion and hydrogen fuel cells by themselves are unable to run the powertrain over long distances under heavy loads, which makes acceleration and braking increasingly difficult. Hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles also suffer from erratic power output during acceleration.
However, because hydrogen fuel cells can generate and store their own electricity. There is plenty of room to use them to their full potential to replenish the batteries.
Driving a greener future
In an era of increasing climate change, sustainable energy has never been more important – and the shift to net-zero transportation is ideal to begin reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The development of hydrogen fuel cells can contribute to the development of lithium-ion batteries. Thereby reshaping the green future of automotive energy.